Bearing the Cross of Milnholm

DSL-Language  cross/kross

DSL cross kross

Old Norse  Cross/Kross, referring to a stone marker for a grave;

cross kross stone-wood ON


The above shows the word cross/kross has be around a long time in Old Norse form, which one use is said stone or wood, and as a marker, and may mark a grave or holy place.

Today’s Milnholm Cross converted to yesterday’s Milnholm Cross.

Today’s Milnholm Cross;

Milnholm Cross


Robert Bruce Armstrong in 1883 said that the shield was recently added.

Milnholm Cross shield


The shield and where added;


It can be said, that reiver families are named after what is on the shield by Chronicles of the Armstrong, JL Armstrong MD editor.

Shield with strong arms added later;


There are strong arms; Armstrongs on the shield, which was not there ca 1680. The Cross may have looked like what is in RB Armstrong book History of Liddesdale…




This name Maiger could easily be for a Maiger Town, but it is felt tha the name evolved into Mangerton because of the shape of the valley which it is in.

Makes another change in the cross;


Where the MA/AA becomes AA II.

Now the Milnholm Cross brought back to the time of burial it is felt that this is the object which needs to be evaluated for burial.


The IHS;

‘Are there no Christians to be found?’ he asked. ‘No,’ came the reply, ‘we are only Elliots and Armstrongs’

The Milnholm Cross is a Christain burial with cross with IHS on it.

Though today the Armstrong in accordance The Chronicles are named after the strong arm(s), on their shield, it is felt the name evolved from Armystrand, an army which was a long the Scottish side of the Liddel Water; known as an armystrand. The people who also lived on this river The Chronicles say they were very close to the Armstrong, are known as Little, and did not get their name because they were little, but it came from the river which the lived on with the Armstrong, the Liddel Water. A winner of gold for Scotland in the 1924 Olympic, told the Prince of Wales he would not run on Sunday, and died on mission to China. His name was Eric Liddell, which originated with Laird Alexandir Armystrand (AA), of the Liddel Water.


Liddel/Little Armstrong and Scott Shields 1600 had star and crescent moon, but Scott has a band and not St Andrews Cross on it.


The sword;

Ulfberht Variants

Ulfberht Variant ulf(wolf/sword) berht(bright), a shiny (of a metallic luster, reflective properties of a mirror which a lot of swords of the day may not of had) sword which cuts like the canines of a wolf.  A sword of a person of status. A Scandinavian Viking type sword.

Ulf, Elg, and Bjørn (wolf, elk/moose, and bear) are early masculine Scandinavian names;


Johannes Eluald John Elwald Ulf of South Creake, Norfolk


Elg, and Bjørn;

Bjørn Elg Bear Elg

A Scandinavian could have been known as Ulf (wolf), or very less likely Ulfberht the like “strong arm” is “arm strong”; “wolf bright” is “bright wolf”, but it is more likely the name of the sword.

Though Ulf is a personal name, and Ulf- could likely be used as a prefix like Elg- (elk/moose) in Elgwalt, where -berht has been used as a suffix, an you could have a individual named in conjunction with the sword his made. It is felt most sword of the day would have be wrought black, and the Ulfberht would have shined like a mirror and cut like a wolf, so it’s name would mean the sword which is shiny, and the one who made it may have been referred to by the name which he placed on the swords he made.


The AA II;

A form of Alexandir Armystrand;



In 1376 there is listed an Alexandir Armystrand of Mangerton, with the tradition of naming the first son after the father and so on at one time there was likely and Alexandir Armystrand II of Mangerton. Whitehaugh, could likely be Mangerton Tower, were Whitehaugh would be where Copshaw/Newcastleton is now just north of the Milnholm Cross.

Graham Armstrong Saxton 1576 map

As on can see on the 1576 Saxton map the Armstrong Peel Towers are a strand along the Scotland side of the Liddel Water. It should be noted that the Kerhopefoot Armstrong tower could be a Ker tower.

It should be noted that not all people it is felt in Liddesdale at this time had a surname or owned land.

Most likely Mangerton  from manger town, which would mean a town in a manger or valley.

Mangerton Valley, manger shaped

Names of localities historically lean towards their shapes. Weapons are mostly utilized to name sharp pinnacles and protrusions.

Geological and Weapon Pike

For a valley shaped as a manger and could feed animals along the Liddel Water, and town may be referred to as a Manger Town. The locality of Mangerton, is in a manger shaped valley a long a fairly level river in which livestock would have good grazing, a bank such as that is referred to as a holm an if it has a mill/miln on it is may be referred to as a mill/miln holm.

The word manger has been used in Scotland since the fourteenth century;

DSL manger


Or less likely;

Chronicle manger town south of Newcastleton


A number of towns take the name Bethlehem, and Mangerton, may be another way of referring to Bethlehem. Though this is felt to be unlikely, to the town being in a manger shaped valley.


For Newcasleton, there first was built a town near the foundation of Liddel Castle on the Liddel Water a pre-Hemitage Castle, and it was called Castle Town, then short Castleton, and when they built another nearby town they called it New Castleton, and the other town then was referred to as Old Castleton.



Various old spellings Castletown Liddesdale.

Now New Castleton is referred to as Newcastleton, where Copshaw is where Cop means cup, and shaw is a patch of trees, so Copshaw means a cup of tree. The trees of course may have been since harvested. Kershopefoot; Ker’s hope (valley), and foot, means at the foot of the valley belonging to the Kers.

A number of towns take the name Bethlehem, and Mangerton, may be another way of referring to Bethlehem.

Where Copshaw (Newcastleton), would mean a cop/cup, shaw/trees, a cop of trees.

It is felt that Whithauch/Whitehaugh, and Maingertoun/Mangerton, are properly listed on maps below;

Mangerton Side

Using contours,

Newcastleton Copshaw Holm Mangertonmap

It should be noted that in Scottish laird means landed proprietor, though the land transferred in the latter part of the fifteenth century before Robert Elwald received land of Redheugh and Lariston, at the request of Archibald “Bell the Cat” Douglas fifth earl of Angus to Buccleuch, the land was felt to be under control of the Armstrong tenants, because the chief of the Armstrong clan was the Laird of Mangerton, and one could be known as the Laidis Jok, (likely the Laird of Mangerton an Armstrong, a John Elwald/Ellot) or the Lairdis Wat (likely a Walter Scot, a follower of the Laird of Mangerton), as expressed in the poem Jok (Jack from John) O’ Syde.

During the Union of the Crowns, many an Armstrong were displaced, but not at the willingness of Buccleuch, who worked hand in hand with land gains from the actions of the Armstrong. Buccleuch took on the responsibility of holding the land for the Armstrong. Much in the same way land is set aside, and can not be sold for the people native to America. The greatest accomplishment of the Buccleuch is not the preservation and protection of The Hermitage Castle, but of the preservation and protection of as many Armstrong in the United Kingdom which were able to survive displacement during the Union of the Crowns.



Miln is for mill;

In the map above, one can see the Milnholm cross is located near a mill. Given the base has a square hole to place the cross in it is felt that it may have been made from a miln/mill stone which would have a square hole in the center.

Base of The Milnholm Cross;



A Milnstone which could be carved into the above base;

Milnholm Cross base from mil stone


Holm; is stretch of low lying land beside a river, an example would be a meadow. It is felt included in this stretch of land would be the town of Newcastleton which would need low lying land to build on, and the Milnholm Cross is felt to be at the southern end of this low lying land.

Hartsgarth Tower, is south of the Hermitage Castle, north of an near, and on land of Redheugh. The so called lintels; the beam which tops, windows, and door in architecture, are likely with two having a large square notch for a massive bolt; the are likely broken mill stones, but they could be used for lintels, or a more complete one with a large chip on the outside could be made into the base for the Milnholm Cross. Imagine that a miln stone could be used for the base.

Milsholm Tower mill lintel Harsgarth

Mark Elliott   2/3&6/2015

Forename comparisons for the Elliot/Elliott and Armstrong/Fairbairn. For the Elliott and Armstrong the first four name in the same order are the same.


Mark Elliott 3/2/2015








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